The appropriate combinations of life cycle options (LCOPs) and delivery modes should be selected in the design of an environmentally benign product-service system (PSS). The LCOPs reduce the environmental load during product life cycles, and the delivery modes provide products and services to customers, affecting the effectiveness of the LCOPs. This paper analyzes the relationships between the two and proposes a procedure for selecting their proper combinations. A life cycle simulation is used to evaluate the selected combinations. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated by applying it to a laundry business.
A Method for Selecting Delivery Modes in Environmentally Benign Product Service System Design
by E. Matsumoto; J. Okada; J. Ohtake; S. TakataJan 1, 2013